Thymosin Alpha 1 – 10mg


10 mg per vial

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Molecular Formula


Molecular Weight3108.3
Monoisotopic Mass3106.5041281
Polar Area1460
Heavy Atom Count217
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count49
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count59
Rotatable Bond Count111
Physical AppearanceFine White Lyophilized Powder
StabilityLyophilized protein is to be stored at -20°C. It is recommended to aliquot the reconstituted (dissolved) protein into several discrete vials in order to avoid repeated freezing and thawing. Reconstituted protein can be stored at 4°C
PubChem LCSS

Thymalfasin Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary



Isomeric SMILESCC[C@H](C)[C@@H](C(=O)N[C@@H]([C@@H](C)O)C(=O)N[C@@H]([C@@H](C)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCCN)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(=O)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCCN)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(=O)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCCN)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCCN)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(=O)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](C(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](C(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(=O)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(=O)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(=O)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(=O)N)C(=O)O)NC(=O)[C@H](CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)NC(=O)[C@H]([C@@H](C)O)NC(=O)[C@H](CC(=O)O)NC(=O)[C@H](C(C)C)NC(=O)[C@H](C)NC(=O)[C@H](C)NC(=O)[C@H](CC(=O)O)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)NC(=O)C
IUPAC Name(4S)-4-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S,3R)-2-[[(2S,3R)-2-[[(2S,3S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S,3R)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-acetamido-3-hydroxypropanoyl]amino]-3-carboxypropanoyl]amino]propanoyl]amino]propanoyl]amino]-3-methylbutanoyl]amino]-3-carboxypropanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxybutanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxypropanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxypropanoyl]amino]-4-carboxybutanoyl]amino]-3-methylpentanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxybutanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxybutanoyl]amino]-6-aminohexanoyl]amino]-3-carboxypropanoyl]amino]-4-methylpentanoyl]amino]-6-aminohexanoyl]amino]-4-carboxybutanoyl]amino]-6-aminohexanoyl]amino]-6-aminohexanoyl]amino]-4-carboxybutanoyl]amino]-3-methylbutanoyl]amino]-3-methylbutanoyl]amino]-4-carboxybutanoyl]amino]-4-carboxybutanoyl]amino]propanoyl]amino]-5-[[(1S)-3-amino-1-carboxy-3-oxopropyl]amino]-5-oxopentanoic acid


NuScience Peptides sells research products only, they are not for human consumption.

Description – Thymosin Alpha 1

Thymalfasin is a chemically synthesized version of thymosin alpha 1 that is identical to human thymosin alpha 1. Thymosin alpha 1 is an acetylated polypeptide. Thymosin alpha 1 is now approved in 35 developing countries for the treatment of Hepatitis B and C. It is also used to boost the immune response in the treatment of other diseases.Thymalfasin (Thymosin Alpha 1) is a synthetic analogue of thymosin-alpha-1, a 28-amino acid protein derived from the precursor protein prothymosin-alpha.
Exhibiting a variety of immunoregulating properties, thymosin-alpha-1 induces differentiation of murine T-cell precursors and human thymocytes and the terminal differentiation of functionally immature cord blood lymphocytes and induces production of IL-2, high affinity IL-2 receptors, and B-cell growth factors by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. T-helper and cytotoxic/suppressor T-cell populations are targets of thymosin activity. Thymosin-alpha-1 has been shown to increase the efficiency of antigen presentation by macrophages and to be an endogenous modulator of alpha-thrombin activity. (NCI04)

Mechanism of Action

The mechanism of action of thymalfasin is not completely understood but is thought to be related to its immunomodulating activities, centered primarily around augmentation of T-cell function. In various in vitro assays, thymosin alpha 1 has been shown to promote T-cell differentiation and maturation; for example, CD4+, CD8+, and CD3+ cells have all been shown to be increased. Thymosin alpha 1 has also been shown to increase production of IFN-g, IL-2, IL-3, and expression of IL-2 receptor following activation by mitogens or antigens, increase NK cell activity, increase production of migratory inhibitory factor (MIF), and increase antibody response to T-cell dependent antigens.

Thymosin alpha 1 has also been shown to antagonize dexamethasone-induced apoptosis of thymocytes in vitro. In vivo administration of thymosin alpha 1 to animals immunosuppressed by chemotherapy, tumor burden, or irradiation showed that thymosin alpha 1 protects against cytotoxic damage to bone marrow, tumor progression and opportunistic infections, thereby increasing survival time and number of survivors.

Many of the in vitro and in vivo effects of thymosin alpha 1 have been interpreted as influences on either differentiation of pluripotent stem cells to thymocytes or activation of thymocytes into activated T-cells. Thymalfasin also has been shown in vitro to upregulate expression of toll like receptors (TLR) including TLR2 and TLR9 in mouse and human dendritic cells, as well as activate NF-kB and JNK/P38/AP1 pathways. Thymalfasin’s activation of dendritic cells provides another possible pathway explaining thymalfasin’s immunomodulatory and antiviral effects.


Animal toxicology studies have shown no adverse reactions in single doses up to 20 mg/kg and in repeated doses up to 6 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks, which were the highest doses studied. The highest single dose tested in animals represents 800-times the clinical research dose.

NuScience Peptides sells research products only, they are not for human consumption.


  • alpha1 Thymosin
  • alpha1-thymosin
  • thymalfasin
  • thymosin alpha(1)
  • thymosin alpha1
  • Zadaxin


Chien RN, Liaw YF: Thymalfasin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2004 Feb;2(1):9-16. [PMID:15482167]
Sjogren MH: Thymalfasin: an immune system enhancer for the treatment of liver disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Dec;19 Suppl 6:S69-72. [PMID:15546253]
Liaw YF: Thymalfasin (thymosin-alpha 1) therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Dec;19 Suppl 6:S73-5. [PMID:15546254]
Sjogren MH: Thymalfasin: an immune system enhancer for the treatment of liver disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Dec;19(12):S69-72. [PMID:15641207]
Liaw YF: Thymalfasin (thymosin-alpha 1) therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Dec;19(12):S73-5. [PMID:15641208]
Vemuri S: Comparison of assays for determination of peptide content for lyophilized thymalfasin. J Pept Res. 2005 Apr;65(4):433-9. [PMID:15813890]
Rustgi VK: Thymalfasin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2005 Dec;3(6):885-92. [PMID:16307501]
Rustgi VK: Thymalfasin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Sep;1112:357-67. Epub 2007 Jun 28. [PMID:17600289]
Gramenzi A, Cursaro C, Andreone P, Bernardi M: Thymalfasin: clinical pharmacology and antiviral applications. BioDrugs. 1998 Jun;9(6):477-86. [PMID:18020580]
Pierluigi B, D’Angelo C, Fallarino F, Moretti S, Zelante T, Bozza S, De Luca A, Bistoni F, Garaci E, Romani L: Thymosin alpha1: the regulator of regulators? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 Apr;1194:1-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05465.x. [PMID:20536444]


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